Vitiligo is a condition in which the cells that produce skin pigment (melanin) are destroyed, creating patches of lighter skin.
Vitiligo can be separated into two main types, generalized vitiligo, and segmental vitiligo. Generalized and segmental vitiligo can affect any part of the body’s surface.
In generalized vitiligo there are symmetrical patches of depigmentation on both sides of the body. Frequently, generalized vitiligo starts with patches of skin abrasion on the hands, bases, elbows, armpits, or face.
Generalized vitiligo can also be referred to as non-segmental vitiligo, bilateral vitiligo, or vitiligo Vulgaris.
About nine in 10 people with the condition have generalized vitiligo. A person can develop generalized vitiligo at any age, and it constantly progresses throughout life. Generalized vitiligo may also show non-skin symptoms and is associated with autoimmune and thyroid conditions.
Subtypes of generalized vitiligo:
There are following subtypes of generalized vitiligo.
- Acrofacial vitiligo:
Acrofacial vitiligo affects the head and distal extremities similar to the fingertips.
- Focal vitiligo:
Focal vitiligo affects one patch or many small, isolated patches of depigmentation in one area that doesn’t spread with time.
- Universal vitiligo:
Universal vitiligo is an uncommon form of vitiligo where 80 percent or further of the skin loses color.
Segmental Vitiligo/ Unilateral Vitiligo:
Differently to generalized vitiligo, segmental vitiligo generally affects just one side of the body. Segmental vitiligo can also be called unilateral vitiligo.
This type of vitiligo affects about one in 10 people with vitiligo and is more prominent in children (three in 10 children with vitiligo have segmental vitiligo). Persons with segmental vitiligo generally develop the condition as children or youths.
Segmental vitiligo can manifest in specific patterns that are different from person to person. Many persons with segmental vitiligo also lose some quantity of hair color on the head, eyelashes, or eyebrows.
Segmental vitiligo is less significantly associated with autoimmune conditions than generalized vitiligo.
Some experimenters believe that different types of vitiligo may have different causes.
This is the third type of vitiligo.
In some cases, people can develop vitiligo as a result of drug/medication use. Vitiligo caused by medicines is most generally the result of a drug that modifies the immune system, including immunomodulators, biologics, and targeted chemo used to treat cancer. Vitiligo may also be caused by topical exposure to mono-benzine or analogous chemicals in a class known as phenols. Certain targeted chemotherapy for leukemia and carcinoma and drugs that treat serious illnesses like rheumatoid arthritis or psoriasis are among the medicines that can cause vitiligo.
Like other forms of vitiligo, inheritable factors may make some people more prone to developing medicine-triggered vitiligo. Those who develop medicine-triggered vitiligo may also be more likely to develop other autoimmune conditions.
Medicine-induced vitiligo frequently develops at an age.
Small white blotches are common in new areas of medicine-induced vitiligo. Medicine-induced vitiligo may reverse after stopping the drug that caused skin depigmentation.